I love the history of my country.
I have taken this from Wikipedia, but I hope that by putting it here people will learn more about it. I want to make this a series of posts about our glorious history.
The Feudal Era of Azerbaijan’s History
The Persian Sassanids turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in AD 252, while King Urnayr officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while fully subordinate to Sassanid Persia, and retained its monarchy. In the first half of the 7th century AD, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sassanids and Byzantines from the Caucasus region and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after the Christian resistance, led by King Javanshir, was suppressed in 667. Caucasian Albania however, came already under nominal Muslim rule through the Muslim conquest of Persia, as it made up part of the Sassanid territory upon advent of the Muslim conquest. The power vacuum left by the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate was filled by numerous local dynasties such as the Sallarids, Sajids, Shaddadids, Rawadids and Buyids. At the beginning of the 11th century, the territory was gradually seized by waves of Turkic Oghuz tribes from Central Asia. The first of these Turkic dynasties established was the Seljuqs, which entered the area now known as Azerbaijan by 1067.
The pre-Turkic population that lived on the territory of modern Azerbaijani Republic spoke several Indo-European and Caucasian languages, among them – Armenian and an Iranian language called the Old Azari language, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, the early precursor of the Azerbaijani language of today. To distinguish it from the Turkic Azerbaijani or Azeri language, this Iranian language, is designated as the Azari language (or Old Azari language), because the Turkic language and people are also designated as “Azari” in the Persian language. However some linguists have also designated the Tati dialects of Iranian Azerbaijan and the Republic of Azerbaijan, like those spoken by the Tats, as a remnant of Azari. Locally, the possessions of the subsequent Seljuq Empire were ruled by Atabegs, who were technically vassals of the Seljuq sultans, being sometimes de facto rulers themselves. Under the Seljuq Turks, local poets such as Nizami Ganjavi and Khagani Shirvani gave rise to a blossoming of Persian literature on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan. The next ruling state of the Jalayirids was short-lived and fell under the conquests of Timur.
The local dynasty of the Shirvanshahs became a vassal state of Timur’s Empire, and assisted him in his war with the ruler of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh. Following Timur’s death, two independent and rival states emerged: Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. The Shirvanshahs returned, maintaining a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals from 861 until 1539. During their conquest and persecution by the Iranian Safavids in 1501, the last dynasty imposed Shia Islam upon the formerly Sunni population, as it did over its territories in modern-day Iran, as it was battling against the Sunni Ottoman Empire. This, in combination with another series of events, the Safavids laid the foundation for the fact that both the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan and Iran are the only Shia majority countries ever since. Despite efforts of the Safavids, the Ottomans briefly managed to occupy swaths of present-day Azerbaijan twice over the centuries. Also, Baku and its environs were briefly managed by the Russians in the early 18th century through the consequences of the Russo-Persian War (1722-1723). Despite these very brief intermissions by Safavid Iran’s neighboring rivals, the land of what is nowadays Azerbaijan remained under intermittent Iranian rule from the earliest advent of the Safavids up to the course of the 19th century.